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Once we have created a nucleus with axial deformation, i.e., a nucleus with ellipsoidal shape, but still axial symmetry about one axis, we can rotate the fluid around one of the non-symmetry axes to generate excitations, see Fig. 5.9. This radius can also be represented as 20 fm, where 1fm = 10^-15m, the femtometer or fermi unit. According to relativity, mass and energy are equivalent and interchangeable quantities, the equivalence being expressed by Einstein’s famous mass-energy equation E = mc2, where m is an object’s mass and c is the speed of light.

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This work is often motivated by the hierarchy problem and is constrained by existing experimental data. It may involve work on supersymmetry, alternatives to the Higgs mechanism, extra spatial dimensions (such as the Randall-Sundrum models), Preon theory, combinations of these, or other ideas The Ideas of Particle Physics - An Introduction for Scientists. Second Edition. CUP. 1994.. This article is published as a chapter of the book "The Nobel Prize: The First 100 Years", Agneta Wallin Levinovitz and Nils Ringertz, eds., Imperial College Press and World Scientific Publishing Co. MLA style: "The Nobel Prizes in Physics 1901-2000" Quantum Field Theory for the Gifted Amateur. It additionally provides an explanation for sub-nuclear physics and some aspects of cosmology in the earliest moments of the universe (high energy processes). The Standard Model is conceptually simple and contains a description of the elementary particles and forces Introduction To Cosmology And Particle Physics. Therefore, a few awards for chemistry will also be mentioned in the text that follows, particularly when they are closely connected to the works of the Physics Laureates themselves epub.

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