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Historically under Communist regimes, both the Russians and the Chinese believed that foreign relations ought to be conducted in a ‘business-like’ manner, something that Herbert Hoover popularized back in the 1920s. The Muslims carried out many fresh observations which were contained in astronomical tables called Zij. The Tethys Ocean was fully formed in the Jurassic and the continents began to break up in earnest, which led to rising sea levels.� The shallow seas that began to reappear in the Triassic became widespread in the Jurassic as continental shelves were submerged.� The Atlantic Ocean began forming in the Jurassic, as North America, Africa, and South America split, and the world-circling Panthalassic Ocean became the Pacific Ocean about the same time, although it is more of a convention among geologists than any dramatic change.� Australia began to split from Antarctica during the Jurassic.� Mountain-building events along the west coast of North America continued unabated, and the Andes Mountains, which began forming in the Triassic, continued their development in the Jurassic .� In the middle Jurassic, the largest bony fish ever, Leedsichthys, a filter feeder, lived.� It reached nearly 20 meters in length.� Scientists have long argued over how other leviathans of Jurassic oceans, such as plesiosaurs, lived. �Scientists have proposed several hypotheses to explain the function of their anatomy.� The mi d-Jurassic marked the beginning of a 160-million-year period of anoxic events that produced most of Earth�s oil deposits, and they finally ended in the Oligocene .� The anoxia of post-Triassic Mesozoic oceans seems to be at least partly the result of increased runoff from land spurred by volcanic events, combined with warm, stagnant, stratified surface waters. [357] � Low atmospheric oxygen, combined with high nutrient runoff and warm waters that absorb less oxygen than cold water, provided the conditions for those anoxic events, and atmospheric oxygen levels only increased toward modern levels in the Cretaceous.� Also, changing currents (including upwelling, which usually brings nutrients to the surface) and rising sea levels (which can make the seafloor anoxic) may have contributed to the unprecedented and never reproduced anoxia of those times. �Until the current low-oxygen events that humans are inducing, anoxic events, and hence oil formation, have not occurred much during the past 30 million years. [358] About 183 mya, an extinction event link ed to anoxic and volcanic events hit ammonoids hard, as usual.� The extinction seems to have been confined to the oceans. [359] � Along with the appearance of carbonate hardgrounds, reefs slowly recovered in the Jurassic, and by the Jurassic�s end, coral reefs lined Tethyan shores.� Low-oxygen tolerating marine animals proliferated in the Jurassic.� Ammonoids, with their superior respirational equipment, developed large, thin-shelled varieties that housed the large gills probably required to navigate the Jurassic�s low-oxygen waters. [360] � Also, a different kind of cephalopod, the ancestor of squids, became plentiful in the Jurassic.� The first crabs appeared in the Jurassic, and they also developed a superior respiration system; they put their gills within their armor and developed a pump gill. [361] � As most seashore visitors know, crabs are quite tolerant of exposure to air, much as nautiloids suffer no ill effects when exposed to air for a short time.� Crabs p roliferated with the late Jurassic�s reefs, to only collapse with the end-Jurassic reef collapse (called the Tithonian event, or end-Jurassic extinction), which was caused by a sudden drop in sea levels, and the extinction again appeared to be largely restricted to marine biomes. [362] � On land, there were extinctions of sauropods, stegosaurs, and advanced ornithopods. [363] The sea level drop q uickly reversed in the early Cretaceous, and the Cretaceous (c. 145 to 66 mya) saw the most dramatic rise in global ocean levels during the eon of complex life .� At the sea level�s peak, the land�s surface area during the Cretaceous was about two-thirds of today�s (18% versus today�s 29% of surface coverage).� By the early Cretaceous, today�s continents were recognizable, and for the first time ever, marked regional differences appeared among the terrestrial animals that inhabited continental biomes.� Sauropods generally stayed in the southern continents and ornithischians came to dominate the northern continents, and theropods also became quite diverse in the late Cretaceous.� The iconic theropod and most famous dinosaur, T-rex, appears to have solely been a North American resident .� Earth�s fossil record for dinosaurs is richest in North America (with China and Mongolia coming in second), so the fossil record may be biased toward northern dinosaurs. [364] � Today, there are only about 100 professional dinosaur paleontologists on Earth; that is not a very large community.� To most six-year-old boys, those scientists won the lottery, as they are paid to study dinosaurs and dig their fossils from the ground.� In T-rex�s northern range, Triceratops was the dominant herbivore, and its confrontations with T-rex may have been Earth�s greatest land battles ever, at least until humans appeared.� In T-rex�s southern range, North America�s largest dinosaur, a gigantic sauropod, lived. [365] As land�s sur face area shrank, the continents became wetter, as all land became relatively close to the oceans.� In the late Jurassic there was a cooling period, the coldest time of the entire Mesozoic, with even some mountainous and polar glaciation, but end-Jurassic volcanism kept carbon dioxide levels high and the climate warmed.� Warm-climate plants lived within 15 degrees of the South Pole during the Cretaceous, and forest went all the way within five degrees of the poles, which has fascinated scientists as they try envisioning a biome which was in the dark for nearly half the year. [366] � The Cretaceous was generally a hot, wet time on Earth.

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Publisher: Routledge; 1 edition (November 13, 2014)


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