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Women don't share a common style nor have the same reasons for wearing hijab. Although archaeology has answered many questions about the Olmec, many more still remain. In the river valleys of China, villages are growing in number and size, and their technologies are advancing. The New Kingdom pharaohs established a period of unprecedented prosperity by securing their borders and strengthening diplomatic ties with their neighbors. In the East ern Woodlands of North America, natives began domesticating plants before 2500 BCE.��It may well be an independent domestication event. [734] � Those horticulturalists largely became matrilineal societies.� The Adena culture was succeeded by the Hopewell culture, in which maize seems to have made its way from Mesoamerica.� Around 500 CE, the Late Woodland period began, the bow and arrow supplanted the spear and atlatl, and the " three sisters " - maize, beans, and squash - began dominating food production.� When the Medieval Warming Period began around 800 CE, intensive maize production began and spread, which led to rapid population growth and the rise of Mississippian culture, which led to the only pre-Columbian N orth American city, at Cahokia, which collapsed, almost certainly from environmental over-taxation and a cooling climate, before 1400 CE.� The mound-building Mississippian culture had a familiar trajectory, as intensive agriculture led to an agricultural surplus.� Men, who controlled the surplus and rose to dominance, commandeered the local religion into granting them divine status or sanction and erected monumental architecture to themselves and their divine yet invisible patrons.� As in Sumer, they made their structures from earth instead of stone.� Soil fertilization for maize-growing was not practiced, which rapidly depleted the soils (there were no domestic animals to provide manure, and the Indians did not adopt the night soil practices of East Asia), and the cooling of the Little Ice Age, along with declining soil fertility, spelled the decline of Mississippian culture before Europe's first invasions of the Columbian era.� The Soto entrada and its aftermath was a catastrophe for Mississippian peoples. [735] � Later European invaders encountered lands long since depopulated .� By the 1600s, when England began invading the Eastern Woodlands, the Mississippian culture had vanished, and by the late 1700s, the Southeastern Indians not only retained no memory of who made those mounds that they lived near, they also had no memory of the social order that built them.� The Cherokee seemed to retain some vestigial memory of Mississippian culture, as they had stories of despotic Indians that the Cherokee annihilated, but the mounds had become the source of a myth that spirit warriors lived in the mounds and could issue forth and fight Cherokee enemies. [736] � Anasazi civilization also overtaxed its environment and collapsed in a drought, as did the Classic Maya .� The lauding of Native American environmental conscience seems largely a romantic invention, like the � peaceful savage � fantasy.� Although N ative Americans obviously had a far gentler tenure on the land than what happened in the Old World, it may have been only a matter of time before they �progressed� with metal smelting, rampant deforestation, and the like.� Without draft animals (bison were probably the only candidate for that, and turning them into domesticated draft animals may not have been feasible), their civilizations might have taken very different paths than the Old World�s.� What kinds of civilizations might have emerged from the Western Hemisphere had Europe not intervened will always remain a tantalizing question, but we will never know; those civilizations did show different ways to do it, even if what the Spaniards stumbled into seemed familiar, with cities, markets, elites, monumental architecture, warriors, priests, peasants, slaves, and so on.

Pages: 65

Publisher: [s.n.] (1889)

ISBN: B0008A3Z7M

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