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The Melanesians: Studies in Their Anthropology and Folklore. Among these fundamental ideas are the notion of the possibility of applying the scientific method to the study of man; the abstract conception of culture—or the totality of socially acquired habits distinct from physical inheritance—as itself a possible object of scientific inquiry; and the notion of culture as undergoing cumulative and progressive change over a long time span. All human societies have been curious about how their customs originated and what the differences between their own culture and that of neighbouring societies might mean.

Pages: 240

Publisher: Berghahn Books (November 1999)


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colonial languages are expanded at the expense of indigenous ones dictionary of morphemes and its meanings; essentially all the words in our vocabulary Language change over time; Social context/pressures; Linguistic variations and uses of language humans can talk about things that are not present occurs during growth and development of individual organisms; more efficient respiratory system research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period "The Gift" talked about the obligation to reciprocate, to give and receive and the significance of gifts dominates in capitalistic societies; governs the distribution of the means of production classic economies assume profit motive; quantify cost-benefit models; assume actors are rational left things to be traded in a certain area; if the goods were insufficient, they would be left as a symbol to leave more (specific reciprocity) ways of organizing production sound combinations; morphemes (words and their meaningful parts) through multiple places through time the belief that people everywhere see the world in the same way as we do Cultural, Biological, Linguistic, Archaeological Universal grammar; all languages have a set of underlying conditions and rules that remain constant through all languages of the world comparative study of exchange; market principle, redistribution, reciprocity informants who by accident, experience, talent or training who can provide the most useful information on parts of life study of communication through body movement, stances, gestures, and expressions; culture teaches us that certain manners and styles should accompany certain kinds of speech trobrian islands; trade cycle that circulated showcase items; these goods needed to be returned to original owner; not good to keep these things; giver > receiver arbitrary connections between words and what they stand for class structures and time constraints; gender expectations; commercialization of public space; consumption and identity embodies those beliefs, learned behavior patterns, values and institutions that are shared by citizens of the same nation dealing with people outside or on the fringe of their social system; purely economic, no relationship over time; hostile relationship; theft ecosystems of the past method of ethnography taking part in the event that one is observing, describing and analyzing unique to certain cultures; becoming less and less prominent study of speech sounds; which sounds are meaningful and present in a given language Terms from both languages, not fully grammatical sentences, used for trade linguistic practices are symbolic capital that properly trained people may convert into economic and social capitol; my fair lady; better language = higher society herding of domesticated animals for food/leather etc; transhumance and nomadism Native Americans threw a party and gave gifts; used this mechanism to enhance social status in agriculture societies; Economy: system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources small scale agriculturists who live in nonindustrial states and have rent fund obligations body, not passed down sound contrast that makes a difference; comparing minimal parts study of the significant phonemes of each language study of speech sounds in general individuals within a society have diverse motives and intentions and different degrees of power and influence impression of wealth, social status Culture gives us an idea of what our map looks like, but we do not have to follow the maps. not observable, must be asked about it → beliefs, values, expectations food, clothing, etc intimate; land as a means of production; specialization using rules of language to produce entirely new expressions that are comprehensible to other native speakers original language from which daughter languages diverge generally accepted social behaviors, dress code, speech, etc. can be observed → rituals, clothing, behavior, pledge of allegiance, speech forms method of ethnography good friendly working relationship that is based on personal contact with hosts actual behavior exchange between social equals; central division of economic and social systems; generalized, balanced, negative range of reciprocity when goods, services, or equivalents more from the local level to a center; flow of products should reverse direction ethnographer puts his/her own feelings/reactions to the field situations right in the text Consciousness of researcher of who he is and his biases Translingual Narration: Colonial and Postcolonial Taiwanese Fiction and Film.

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